What do we know about the text? When was it composed? What were its sources? Did it come from a specific South Asian religious tradition? How influential was it?
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What do we know about the text? When was it composed? What were its sources? Did it come from a specific South Asian religious tradition? How influential was it? In what areas of South Asia? Why those? Because of this, Thomas Coburn, the American scholar who translated our extract above, suggests the Adbhuta is better understood as an aggregated folk tradition than as a polished literary text 5.
It certainly draws on folk motifs and the story of the killing of the second Ravana which were found, initially, it seems, in Tamil traditions from southeast India. They were also taken up or circulated in vernacular language traditions in eastern India, in Orissa 15th c.
AD , and then in Assam and Bengal. The areas of red on this map of India indicate the regions where the story of the second Ravana circulated in folk traditions. Map of India, showing modern states disputed boundaries not shown Like many Sanskrit sources, the Adbhuta is very difficult to date accurately. Coburn suggests the late sixteenth century as a possibility. So, we have earlier tellings linked with interweaving Sanskrit and folk traditions, particular devotional groups and philosophical schools.
What of our Adbhuta? The Adbhuta Ramayana presents itself as one of two Ramayanas told by the sage Valmiki. But this, says our text, is but a fraction of the longer divine Ramayana of which itself is a part. Historically, however, it is linked with a Shakta standpoint, presenting the Goddess as the amazing One, the source of all wonders.
For in Shakta traditions, Shakti, the divine power of the Goddess, is worshipped as the ultimate reality in Her own right although Shiva, as her consort, often remains in the frame. Mandodari wants to end her miserable life and drinks from a pitcher Ravana has given her, believing it to be full of poison.
But the pitcher contains both milk and drops of blood. The milk had been used as an offering by a childless woman to invoke the goddess of wealth and beauty, Lakshmi, hoping she would have a daughter like her 8.
The drops of blood were gathered by Ravana from the sages in the Dandaka forest so he could conquer the whole world 8. To avoid Ravana, Mandodari goes off on a pilgrimage to Kurukshetra in north India, aborts the embryo and buries it in the ground 8. King Janaka brings her up, hence her name Janaki daughter of Janaka. And yet she is more than this. In our part of the text, the gods, led by Brahma, address her to remind her of her true identity in order to stop her trampling on Shiva and destroying the whole earth.
It is thus that we find out that she is Maheshvari Shakti, the Power of the universe, none other than the Great Goddess herself This is a clear indication that She is the ultimate, the equivalent to brahman in Advaitin traditions. The gods indeed acknowledge her highest nature, yet remind her that it is she who manifests as the beloved wife of Rama, remaining untainted by her two appearances as Sita and as Kali whose source is the light which is innate to her This seems to be a reference to the threefold understanding of reality which Bengali tantric texts shared with Kashmiri Trika texts.
Whereas the first is beyond all distinctions of language and form, in the second the goddess becomes aware of polarity which inaugurates the next phrase of creation or manifestation Gupta: ; this in turn results in the third. As well as being called Maheshvari Shakti the power of Maheshvara, that is, Shiva , why then is Sita also identified as the one Vaishnavi Shakti or power of Vishnu?
At one level, this may seem obvious. And in many other texts, Sita and Rama are said to be descent forms of the deities, Lakshmi and Vishnu, who come to restore dharma. Indeed in many Ramayanas, Sita is said to be born for precisely this reason — kidnapped, she becomes the pretext on which Rama can fight Ravana and thus rid the earth of his oppression. Yet in Bengali and other Shakta texts, as here, something further is going on. That she is identified in this way here, where she is actually endangering the earth, is not merely incidental.
It makes the audience wonder whether her destruction is actually restorative. All these terms remind us of Vishnu in the Bhagavad Gita, who uses his marvellous power maya to intervene as Krishna when dharma is in decline, yet remains the source of all there is.
Yet, She is superior even to Vishnu, as She is superior even to Shiva, and to the impersonal brahman. At a cosmic level, Shiva is unable to act without Her; in the Adbhuta story, Rama is similarly impotent. This understanding of the Goddess as the transcendent ultimate reality which grounds all provides one of the sources for the wonderful poetry which is attributed to her eighteenth century Bengali devotee, Ramprasad.
His poetry in turn influenced the famous 19th century figure, Ramakrishna. Why might the earlier Abhuta have superimposed the story of the Goddess onto that of Sita? What is She goddess, demon, elephant, serpent, woman? The pearl hanging from Her nose like a cakora bird in the lap of the full moon swings back and forth.
Jump to navigation Jump to search Adbhuta Ramayana is a Sanskrit work traditionally attributed to the sage Valmiki , or perhaps a different sage who borrowed his name. Its significance lies in its traditional place in the body of Ramayana literature. The Adbhuta Ramayana is composed in 27 sargas of various metres, and only briefly recounts the traditional Rama narrative. Summary[ edit ] Sarga 1: The Rishi Bharadwaja approached Valmiki and asked him to narrate the story of Rama, reminding him that the Ramayana includes hundreds of thousands of shlokas verses , most of which have been unavailable. Bharadwaja asked to hear one of those secret stories, to which Valmiki acquiesced, noting that this version would emphasize the deeds of Sita, the incarnation of Prakriti nature.
अद्भुत रामायण – adbhuta ramayana hindi online
Edit Adbhuta Ramayana is a Sanskrit work traditionally attributed to the sage Valmiki , or perhaps a different sage who borrowed his name. Its significance lies in its traditional place in the body of Ramayana literature. The Adbhuta Ramayana is composed in 27 sargas of various metres, and only briefly recounts the traditional Rama narrative. Summary Edit Sarga 1: The Rishi Bharadwaja approached Valmiki and asked him to narrate the story of Rama, reminding him that the Ramayana includes hundreds of thousands of shlokas verses , most of which have been unavailable.