Meshura Overall, then, older adults seem less able or less likely to use context information to generate information about upcoming words. In other words, when young adults comprehend language, top-down language production related circuitry may routinely be involved at least in the left cerebral kutzs, Federmeier, Participants were given a short break after every 40 trials. Aging in context: age-related changes in context use during language comprehension. Response times for correct responses confirmed our prediction top half of Figure redermeier.
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Faur In sum, a number of electrophysiological studies, as well as some eye-tracking studies e. The majority kutzs VF language studies in healthy adults have focused on word-level processing, often assessed through measures of priming—that is, speeded response times RTs usually in lexical decision tasks to a target preceded by a related prime word.
Effects of aging on verbal abilities: Scope of word meaning activation during sentence processing by young and older adults. Federmeier KD, Kutas M. Participants were given a short break after every 40 trials. Two different effects were evident in the results. These findings suggest that older adults, perhaps especially those with more limited working memory resources e. Journal of Experimental Psychology.
We thank Charlene Lee for help with data processing. For prediction-related effects, these individual differences have been consistently most strongly related to language production measures such as verbal fluency, strengthening the proposed link between prediction during comprehension and language production mechanisms. Effects of stimulus and contextual information on the lexical decision process.
In subsequent work, Federmeier and Kutas found that, compared to younger adults, older adults obtain reduced facilitation from strongly constraining contexts and that the ability of older adults to make use of contextual constraints was linked to working memory resources as indexed by reading span. In the first experiment, robust effects of word association were found on N responses federmfier words in both VFs, with reduced N amplitudes to lateralized targets preceded by a related prime.
Beeman M, Chiarello C, editors. The behavioral results confirm this, as accuracy was near ceiling for both groups, with younger adults averaging Automatic activation and conscious attention. Overall, then, the ERP data show that when young adults read phrasal cues in the context of making acceptability judgments, they predict likely targets.
Cerebral hemispheric mechanisms in the retrieval of ambiguous word meanings. The federmeker use of constraints from multiple levels will tend to strengthen and speed selection e.
Working memory, comprehension, and aging: Reviewed are studies using event-related potentials feedermeier examine when and how sentence context information is used during language comprehension. An analysis with event-related brain potentials. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. Data are from Evans and Federmeier Accuracy correct out of and response times milliseconds to voice onset for younger and older adults for the two cue types. Thinking ahead: The role and roots of prediction in language comprehension In particular, left hemisphere language processing seems to be oriented toward prediction and the use of top-down cues, whereas right hemisphere comprehension is more bottom-up, biased toward the veridical maintenance of information.
Yet the greater specificity with which the input is represented and retained can afford future flexibility, as information can be reinstated and then reanalyzed as needed, potentially allowing for the appreciation of more varied and temporally distant relationships between stimuli.
EEG was continuously digitized at Hz and stored on hard disk for later analysis. Word expectancy and event-related brain potentials during sentence processing. ERP studies of recognition memory have established that old items, relative to new ones, elicit increased posterior positivity from about to ms.
Young adults show prediction-related effects in language comprehension under a wide range of task circumstances, from verification tasks like that in Experiment 1 to listening or reading sentences for comprehension DeLong et al. My profile My library Metrics Alerts. Evidence that predictive processing becomes less likely or less efficacious with age can also be seen in the results of an experiment using the stimuli from Federmeier and Kutas b sentence pairs ending with expected exemplars, within-category violations, and between-category violationsin this case presented to younger and older adults as natural speech Federmeier et al.
An event-related brain potential study. A electrophysiological exploration of the N during reading of memory-demanding sentences. However, a number of language functions stand out for their relative resistance to age-related decline e. Cognitive neuroscience of aging: Articles Cited by Co-authors. In other cases, cooperation between multiple systems may afford processing strategies that neither individual processor is capable of supporting alone. A particularly salient feature of this network is its apparent strong left laterality: Evidence from ERPs and reading times.
In all conditions, sensory components are followed by a broadly-distributed negativity Nlargest at centro-posterior sites. Lovelace EA, Cooley S. Irrespective of the precise nature of the neural or cognitive changes responsible for the observed age-related and individual differences, however, this pair of experiments contributes to a growing body of work suggesting that language comprehension involves multiple mechanisms, which differ in the extent to which they are primarily stimulus-driven as opposed to shaped by top-down, context-based expectancies e.
American Journal of Psychology. Age-related and individual differences in the use of prediction during language comprehension The locus of adult intelligence: Projecting sound onto meaning. Thus, age-related changes in prediction during comprehension generalize across task circumstances.
This pattern makes sense given that increasing the constraint of a context provides more scaffolding for semantic analysis and integration and also renders words more predictable. Does memory feermeier utilization of top-down information in spoken word recognition? In contrast, in the second experiment, when these same word pairs appeared in sentence contexts, association effects were super-ceded by sentential plausibility for targets in both visual fields. Young adults read these sentences one word at a time, named after a delay the lateralized final word, and then answered a comprehension question.
FEDERMEIER AND KUTAS 2005 PDF
Brara Evidence for age constancy in automatic and attentional processes. Older adults may seem to show preserved functioning of these mechanisms when tasks explicitly call upon them, as during overt production. The N in a semantic categorization task across 6 decades. Hemisphericity and top-down processing of language. Thinking ahead: The role and roots of prediction in language comprehension There were three major federeier from this study. Results Behavior A delayed congruency judgment task was used to ensure that participants were attending to the stimuli and appreciating the relationship between the cues and targets. Thus, older adults also showed N facilitation for congruent as compared with incongruent category cues, and differentiated low from high typicality targets.
Mazujin A connectionist model of sentence comprehension and production. Irrespective of the precise nature of the neural or cognitive fsdermeier responsible for the observed age-related and individual differences, however, this pair of experiments contributes to a growing body of work suggesting that language comprehension involves multiple mechanisms, which differ in the extent to which they are primarily stimulus-driven as opposed to shaped by top-down, context-based expectancies e. Young adults show prediction-related effects in language comprehension under federmeiee wide range of task circumstances, from verification feedermeier like that in Experiment 1 to listening or reading sentences for comprehension DeLong et al. Hemispheric differences in layer III pyramidal neurons of the anterior language area.
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