It was taken to the Leiden Museum in Holland and interpreted by A. Gardiner in The complete papyrus can be found in the book Admonitions of an Egyptian from a heiratic papyrus in Leiden. The papyrus describes violent upheavals in Egypt, starvation, drought, escape of slaves with the wealth of the Egyptians , and death throughout the land. The papyrus was written by an Egyptian named Ipuwer and appears to be an eyewitness account of the effects of the Exodus plagues from the perspective of an average Egyptian.
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It was taken to the Leiden Museum in Holland and interpreted by A. Gardiner in The complete papyrus can be found in the book Admonitions of an Egyptian from a heiratic papyrus in Leiden.
The papyrus describes violent upheavals in Egypt, starvation, drought, escape of slaves with the wealth of the Egyptians , and death throughout the land. The papyrus was written by an Egyptian named Ipuwer and appears to be an eyewitness account of the effects of the Exodus plagues from the perspective of an average Egyptian. Below are excerpts from the papyrus together with their parallels in the Book of Exodus.
For a lengthier discussion of the papyrus and the historical background of the Exodus, see Jewish Action, Spring , article by Brad Aaronson, entitled When Was the Exodus? Blood is everywhere. That is our happiness! What shall we do in respect thereof? All is ruin. The entire palace is without its revenues.
To it belong [by right] wheat and barley, geese and fish Forsooth, grain has perished on every side. The land is left over to its weariness like the cutting of flax.
But the wheat and the rye were not smitten; for they were not grown up. Cattle moan Its burning goes forth against the enemies of the land. And God made the Egyptians favour them and they granted their request.
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Literary criticism Chronology The date for the composition of this document is unknown. The dating of the original composition of the poem is disputed, but several scholars have suggested a date between the late 6th dynasty and the Second Intermediate Period ca. Otto was the first to suggest that the discussion was not between Ipuwer and his king, but that this was a discussion between Ipuwer and a deity. Fecht showed through philological interpretation and revision of the relevant passages that this is indeed a discussion with a deity. Although these sections of the poem are badly damaged, they debate the causes of evil and chaos in the world, and the balance between human and divine responsibility for them; this dialogue forms one of the oldest examinations in world literature of the question of theodicy. Thus, this fully independent micro-text can be understood as a sort of oral tradition or at least a literarily formed piece of historical recollection which has trickled into writing, but it is clearly a text with literary forms and ambitions — certainly not a historical report in the narrower sense.
These speeches, in the opinion of Dr. Lange, are prophetic in character; an era of disasters is predicted for Egypt, and is even now, as one passage declares, at hand; and it is the king himself who is responsible for the calamities the bitterness of which he is soon to taste in full measure. Lange, who maintains that it lacks prophetic evidence in its text. The Exodus Events On the other hand, a controversial, yet intriguing, interpretation of this text was proposed by Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky who brought up a theory that the Ipuwer papyrus is a source of evidence for the events of the Exodus, from the Old Testament.